The notes on the guitar fretboard: Some visualization tools

Following my earlier posts covering an introduction to the notes on the guitar fretboard and some basic music theory, in this post I’ll provide some visualization tools to help provide some insight into the structure and layout of the notes on the guitar fretboard.

As mentioned earlier, learning the notes across the fretboard can be a bit challenging because there are six strings, and the same notes appear in different places on each string.

The guitar fretboard

In some ways, keyboard players have an easier time: the pattern of keys on a keyboard repeats every octave, and it maps directly on to natural and non-natural notes. This makes it somewhat easier for a beginner keyboardist to recognize the notes across the instrument.

The piano keyboard

Many years before I started learning guitar, I played the piano, and because of this background I wanted to see if it’s possible to show the notes on the guitar fretboard in such a way that they “jump out” visually, somewhat like a piano keyboard.

In order to do this, I first tried drawing a fretboard with each string thickened into a stripe, and then making each fret position lighter if it’s natural, or darker if it’s non-natural.

Fretboard with natural and non-natural notes

Unfortunately this doesn’t help much: it produces a rather random-looking jumble of light and dark boxes.

CDE and FGAB note ranges

To improve on this, I split each octave into two ranges, CDE and FGAB, and used different colours for these ranges in each octave.

The reason for choosing the ranges CDE and FGAB is that they highlight the underlying pattern of natural notes. Where one range ends and the next begins, the naturals are a semitone apart (i.e. no black note between): the boundaries B-C and E-F. Everywhere else, the naturals are a tone apart (i.e. one black note between).

Here are the CDE and FGAB ranges shown on a keyboard image.

Keyboard with CDE and FGAB note ranges highlighted

For reference, Middle C is marked with a pointer.

Next, I added the same colours to the guitar fretboard, in addition to lighter and darker fret positions representing naturals and non-naturals. This is what we get.

Fretboard with CDE and FGAB note ranges highlighted

For printable PDF versions of the fretboard images in this blog post, see the last section below

Now, the pattern of light and dark boxes doesn’t look so random. The notes on the guitar fretboard are revealed in a slightly more visual, perhaps more “piano-like” way.

Furthermore, this gives you a good idea of the overall layout of the notes, and it’s possible to see at-a-glance where the same absolute pitch can be played on different strings. For example, Middle C (c′) is the first lighter-coloured (i.e. natural) fret position within the pale blue range (c′ to e′), which appears on at least four different strings.

For reference, here are all the note names shown with the coloured CDE and FGAB ranges, with Middle C again indicated by a pointer.

Note names with CDE and FGAB ranges highlighted

The note names are written using Helmholtz pitch notation. This strip only shows natural notes, so the note names correspond only to the lighter-coloured fret positions in the fretboard image above. Again this is due to the way the natural and non-natural notes are distributed. If we lay out the same natural note names across the fretboard it looks like this.

Fretboard with note names


Now let’s use the same coloured note ranges to understand musical notation for guitar. In the following diagram I’ve added the same coloured note ranges to show how the notes map on to the guitar fretboard.

Notation with CDE and FGAB note ranges highlighted

The symbol at the beginning is the clef which tells you how to interpret the pitch of the notes. Guitar music uses the treble clef.

In the absence of a key signature after the clef, the notes written are all naturals.

What this means is that regardless whether the notes fall on a stave line or between two stave lines, they are all natural notes—so once again they correspond only to lighter-coloured fret positions in the fretboard image above, and the white notes on the keyboard.

In musical notation, non-natural notes must be indicated using ♯ (sharp) or♭ (flat) signs. These can be placed either in a key signature, or as accidentals—but I won’t cover these here.

The guitar as a transposing instrument

While we’re on the subject of musical notation, now is a good time to mention that the guitar is a “transposing instrument”.

A transposing instrument is one in which the absolute pitches of the notes played on the instrument are shifted up or down by a certain amount, compared to how they are written in notation.

In the case of guitar, notes are shifted down by one octave when played, compared to how they are written.

To make this clear, let’s look at how the following written note would be interpreted—first on a non-transposing instrument that also uses the treble clef, and then on the guitar.

Middle C (non-transposed)

  • In music written for a non-transposing instrument such as piano, this would mean Middle C (or c′)
  • In music written for guitar, this would mean one octave below Middle C (or c)

This distinction only relates to how guitar music is written in notation. Unless you’re dealing with notation, the fact that the guitar is classed as a “transposing instrument” has no relevance. Really, it’s guitar notation that is transposed, not the guitar itself.

What’s really happening is that guitar notation is transposed up one octave when written, which means you need to transpose back down one octave when you read it.

The only purpose behind the guitar being a transposing instrument is so that in guitar notation you avoid lots of ledger lines, which are notes written above or below the stave, while using a familiar clef—the treble clef.

A little “8” sign can be placed under the treble clef to indicate that you must transpose down by one octave. You don’t generally see that in guitar music, but in the notation diagram above I used it to avoid ambiguity.

The absolute pitch played on any instrument can be unambiguously described based on how you would write or describe the same note for a non-transposing instrument. This absolute reference is sometimes called concert pitch—effectively, we’re using concert pitch whenever we use Helmholtz pitch notation as an absolute reference.

The colours in the visualization diagrams

In the visualization diagrams above, I didn’t choose the colours at random. Neighbouring note ranges required contrasting colours, so I started off alternating between blue and red for the CDE and FGAB ranges one octave below middle C. As the note ranges get higher in pitch, the colours shift towards the green corner of the colour gamut, and also become lighter. So there is a kind of pattern to it.

The resulting colours, especially in the PDF renderings below, can be used as a mnemonic to help learn the layout of the notes. You can also use them to break the fretboard down into smaller chunks, to make the process of memorizing the notes a little more manageable.

One good thing about the CDE and FGAB coloured ranges is that, despite breaking the fretboard down into smaller chunks, they maintain clarity of where the same absolute pitches can be played on different strings.

Putting it all together

Studying fretboard charts does not in itself make you remember the notes on the guitar fretboard. That only seems to come through much playing and practising.

What I’ve tried to do in this post is to plot an overall map of the fretboard, to make it possible to “see” it in its entirety.

In order to actually learn the notes on the fretboard, a great tip is to start by learning the notes on the 5th and 6th (A and E) strings only. This is because the most common barre chord shapes have their roots on these strings.

Once you know the main barre chord shapes such as major, minor and dominant seventh rooted on either the 5th or 6th strings, then by combining this with knowing the note positions on these two strings, you can play these chords in any key.

Be sure to learn plenty of songs using these chords in order to learn the notes on the 5th and 6th strings. Some things just stick in your head more easily when there is a musical context.

Once you know the 5th and 6th strings, with minimal additional effort you can also learn the 1st (e′) string as well, since every note on this string is always two octaves higher than the same fret on the 6th (E) string.

When this is done, you know the strings E, A and e′—that’s three, out of a total of six. Congratulations: you’ve covered half the fretboard! Only three more strings to go…

The guitar fretboard visualization chart

Guitar fretboard visualization chart with note names (thumbnail)The guitar fretboard visualization chart provides a selection of images from these blog posts on one free single-sided PDF sheet. It can be used as a quick reference, helper and learning aid.

There are also various other PDF charts available, including blank tab and blank fretboard charts, which have a clean, simple design optimized for printing out and writing on, and alternative versions of the fretboard charts, including left-handed versions.


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  • Dana

    This is the first time someone has made the correlation for me between the piano keyboard and the guitar fretboard. James, you have done it again. Your way of explaining is simple and straightforward. Thank you and keep up the good work!

  • rcpillai

    Awesome! thanks… will keep track for more posts on guitar, esp. the intriguing yet core-of-core topics…

  • Jimmy

    Your fretboard charts are the best I have found anywhere, and I have looked for a long time. Really pulls all of the information together in a concise, useful way. I have laminated a copy of this chart and have hung it in my shower. Now every time I take a shower, I am learning the notes on the fretboard as well. Thanks so much for this fantastic resource!

  • Glen

    Thank you. I learned to read music on a piano and transferring the notes and scales was a head twister for me. The visual colour patterns make it easier for me to learn.

  • Really lovely post. Very well explained and useful. I like that it connects to sheet music reading and visualization of the neck. I’ve printed this out and will likely keep it in my pocket to review on the train!

  • KRW

    Wow… Thank you so much for this excellent page. I cant even explain how well your visualization model has clicked in my brain. This is the best for me, a total dyslexic… New plateau break-through thank you.

  • John

    You seem to have struck a chord here!

  • Thank you for the key to a long time mystery. I used to play piano and I never “got” what was going on with the fretboard.

  • Maurya Murphey

    Brilliant! I’ve been trying to come up with something like this for years. This will help with visualizing intervals as well. Thank you, for offering this for free!

  • Chris

    Thank you so much. The way you explain this subject is the best I have seen. It has helped me immensely!

  • Brian

    Wow! This is why I enjoy taking Google when I have questions about things. Sometimes, it takes me down a path that is rewarding insofar as the brain is concerned. I’m a self-taught piano player who has been fiddling around on a guitar for a while. The way you connected the instruments here really lets me rethink guitar. Thanks, boss 🙂

  • Chris

    Takes a lot to impress me…this method of comparing the keyboard to guitar is very novel. Well done.

  • NetExplorer

    Well done James, and thank you for this.

  • Frank Pautz

    I have been looking for something like this, thank you very much!

  • Mark

    Thank you for this fantastic information. It’s just what I’ve been searching for to clarify an otherwise confusing-looking fretboard layout.

  • Donnie Ray Sherwood

    Dude, made a chart for quick reference, I’m using it to make some really nice beats on fruity loops studios. Thanks for this. Definite kudos

  • Ventura

    The way you explain this subject is the best I have seen. Thank you very much and… please, post more!

  • Liam M Griffin

    I really like your way of explaining music theory. And your diagrams are great! Especially the colour diagrams. Thanks James, I will refer my students to your blog.

  • Rod Burner

    Game Changer…! Love you longtime…seriously thank you

  • Wang Yandong

    Your article really helps. Thank you!

    • paul

      Could not of done a better job

  • sunra

    This is something I have struggled with forever. As someone who has played piano and trumpet I needed to visualize this relationship. It was like a thorn in my foot that needed to be removed so I could move on freely in my jazz guitar studies. Thank you!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  • Good job.

  • Praveen Raj

    Very thoughtfully crafted visualization! Many thanks for teaching me the mapping quickly and easily!

  • News@11

    Great job I created this also before seeing your site (I stopped at the black and white keys across the fretboard). There’s one small mistake though, you put middle C an octave higher on the coloured keyboard. Super thanks !

    • You’re welcome. Middle C is in the right place though. Middle C is an absolute pitch, with frequency around 261.6 Hz, written c’ in Helmholtz and C4 in scientific; on guitar that can be generated by playing the second string (B string) on the first fret, which is labelled as Middle C in all the diagrams.

      You may be misled by the fact that guitar is notated an octave above concert pitch: this means that if a composer wants you to play Middle C, then in notation they’ll write the note that “looks” an octave above Middle C — second space from the top of the stave. For a non-transposing instrument such as piano that would mean one octave above Middle C (523.3 Hz / c’’ / C5), but a guitarist would read that as true Middle C (262.6 Hz / c’ / C4) and you can play that for example on the second string first fret.

      Similarly if a composer wants you to play one octave below Middle C, then in notation they’ll write the note that “looks” like Middle C — first ledger line below the stave. For a non-transposing instrument such as piano that would mean Middle C (262.6 Hz / c’ / C4), but a guitarist would read that as one octave below Middle C (130.8 Hz / c / C3) and you can play that for example on the fifth string (A string) on the third fret.

      • Karl Bender

        Your explanation is helping me considerably. Have you considered placing the colored chart over a bass and treble cleff to make reading the notes from say- a hymnal easier? Using the Grand Staff. middle C is on a line but using the standard guitar notation, middle C is between lines…. correct? Is there a resource for this?

  • Susan

    Thank you very much. This makes the fretboard more easily understood, especially in relationship to sheet music!

  • Jason

    This makes using the piano music I already have to be playable on the guitar. Thanks!!!

  • Michel

    You friking rock bro, much respect and thank you. You made it as simple as possible. All the best of luck to you and let the muses repay you.

  • N8


  • ArtyoneT

    This gave me a lot clarity. Thank you so much for making this.

  • Denver

    Just getting started learning the guitar, so this information is so useful. Really appreciate how clearly you articulate the nature of notes on the fretboard.

  • This is incredibly helpful man. thanks so much for your inspiration & generosity 🙂

  • Anonymous

    This is a very helpful article and tells me everything I was wondering about

  • Anonymous

    Your article really helped me and told me all I needed to know

  • Victor

    I tell you what… but first first of – many thanks!… so, it won’t turn me overnight into the first-rate fretboard navigator though I’m pretty good at spotting the note locations when I need to, but! – you did a very simple and at the same time profound thing for many of us including me – at least for me you showed me that I’ve been ultimately lazy for 10 years spent with the guitar to find and memorise the location of the middle C. What a shame! Now I’ll try to look often at you colour scheme and I’ll gradually build up a visual memory of the piano keyboard over the guitar fretboard. So simple and so useful!

  • David Sterba

    This is a fantastic way to get the fretboard memorised – recently my class has been learning chord construction on the 3 treble strings, which hinges on knowing where the root of the chord is and on which string – your colour chart solves that mystery for me – thanks a million !

  • Nathan

    I really appreciate your work putting this together. I do have a question however, I hope you can help me understand. Where you marked middle C with an arrow, it corresponds to the C an octave above middle C (on the keyboard image). On the staff image, middle C is in the dark blue but on the keyboard image it is in the teal color. Should that arrow be moved to the left? Thank you.

    • Hi Nathan, the arrow is actually in the right place – Middle C is the light blue colour in ALL the diagrams. The confusion is because guitar music is notated an octave above concert pitch, which means the note shown dark blue on the stave – which would be read as Middle C on a concert pitch instrument e.g. piano – is actually one octave below Middle C in guitar music.

  • RonM

    Thank you very, very much! I’ve just retired at age 66, and this will be my third attempt to learn to play the guitar. My son gave me a very nice classical guitar and you’ve laid out the fretboard in a way that I understand it. I’ll be rockin’ (and not in a rocking chair) in no time.

  • Rafael Fu

    Thank you for this. Amazing work.

  • Zey

    Thanks for the help, this is on point

  • Ben Green

    This diagram in this article is incorrect as it doesn’t take into account the transposition. The Guitar is one octave lower than written, this is mentioned in the article. The Guitar begins at E2 and not E3, so the keyboard positions given in the diagram are misleading.

    It would be better if the diagram showed that although the musician reads E3, the actual keyboard equivalent note played by a guitarist is E2.

    • Hi Ben, the diagrams are actually correct – the lowest note is already shown as E in Helmholtz pitch notation – which is equivalent to E2 in Scientific pitch notation. Middle C is shown correctly on both fretboard and keyboard where the *pitch* Middle C is played, it being an absolute pitch with frequency 262.6 Hz, written c’ in Helmholtz and C4 in Scientific notation.

      The fact that guitar notation is written one octave higher than concert pitch makes no difference to the fretboard or keyboard diagrams – Middle C is Middle C regardless. The transposition only affects the notation diagram, where Middle C is shown over guitar notation as being written an octave higher than it would be for a non-transposing instrument.

      You seem to be under the impression that Middle C is a mutable pitch which shifts around depending on which transposing instrument you’re playing, according to how it’s written for that instrument – but that is not the case.
      – James